Monday, September 30, 2019
Sociology essays deal with the study of human social behavior in a society, thus, it is quite interesting for the students who are interested in human psyche but boring for those who donÃ¢â¬â¢t like studying their species. By and large, essays on sociology are mostly based on informative and argumentative style of writing, the argumentative sociology essay demands to work on thesis while essays on the sociology of knowledge are mostly assigned to the students in the informative arena. Whether it is argumentative or informative essays, one has to develop a topic that can grab the attention of the reader in no time and this is not such an easy task. While developing a topic for sociology essay, on should remember the nature of the subject, that is it deals with human behavior, psychology, humanities and social science. Thus, the topic should be as such which revolves around these subjects. Following are some of the recommended sociology essay topic for the students who are not able to select a good topic for their assignment. 1- Youth addiction to alcohol Ã¢â¬â Causes and concerns 2- Comparison between the children brought up in Filipino and Europe 3- What is and should the role of politicians in socializing through campaigning? 4- Merits and demerits of media for a society? 5- How cross cultural media transformation destroys the culture of a particular society? 6- Internet and its implications on a society. 7- Diffusion of innovation in European culture. 8- Critical comparison between sociology and anthropology 9- Homosexuality Ã¢â¬â crucial warning to our society 10- Views about organ transplantation in our society 11- What are the causes of increasing street crimes in our society? 12- What does mean to be a single parent in a conservative society? 13- Comparison between marriages and live-in? 14- Life in rural areas and life in a metropolitan city 15- Increasing materialism increases the depression in a society 16- In spite of such an advanced means of communication people are increasingly going for solitude. 17- Adoption and its consequences for an adopted child 18- How does divorce effects on the minds of the children 19- Comparison between materialistic and a spiritualistic person 20- Living a life as an eternal bachelor 21- Women empowerment in a conservative society 22- Challenges a working women faces in our society 23- Comparison between inferiority and superiority complex 24- Living whole life in a prison 25- Origin of sociology as a science
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Author Summary Anoma is a university graduate who has hopes of becoming a teacher. However, her parents, especially her mother, had other ideas and wanted to give her in marriage. Mrs. WickramasingheÃ¢â¬â¢s cousin finds a suitable match for Anoma. He is Fredrick Dias, a barrister who has just come back from England. He is said to be good looking, educated, rich, and from a good family background. Fredrick, also known as Wimal, visits Anoma, along with his aunt. After some traditions of welcoming the intended groom, Anoma and Wimal strike up a conversation.Later she agrees that she likes Wimal and they are soon engaged to each other. Months pass happily between the engagement and wedding. The wedding is a gala affair and soon afterwards, Anoma leaves for her honeymoon with Wimal. They spend the first night in the quest house in Kaduwela and thereafter proceed to Grand Hotel, Nuwara Eliya. They go for walks and drives and Anoma enjoys herself except for two factors; two phone calls t o Wimal from an unknown stranger and the fact that Wimal makes no move to make love to her.Upon confrontation, he informs her that the caller is a good friend who is not a girl and excuses himself saying they have a lifetime ahead of them to make love. They come back to Colombo and live in an old Walawuwa where Anoma enjoys numerous comforts. Wimal is kind to her but still is distant from her. Anoma parents visit her and are delighted about their daughtersÃ¢â¬â¢ new lifestyle. Anoma does not confine in her mother but speaks to a friend about her worries. When she does, she finds out that her husband is a homosexual. Analysis PlotThere is only one plot line for the story: An arranged marriage of a girl to a man who turn out to be a homosexual. The story is written in a chronological order with plot devices. There is a flashback at the end of the story when AnomaÃ¢â¬â¢s friend narrates to her what she overheard about Wimal. There is also some foreshadowing and they are; a stranger calling Wimal twice while he is on his honeymoon, WimalÃ¢â¬â¢s words that they will have time later on to make love, and the fact that he is an educated, good looking, rich man who is single. Standard Pyramidal Plot Pattern Feature Article Ã¢â¬âÃ The Plane of the Sleeping Beauty AnalysisExposition- introduction of the characters, setting and main conflict * Anoma Wickramasinghe Ã¢â¬â University graduate with upper second class degree, has a career as a teacher, and is a Buddhist. * Mrs. Wickramasinghe- Traditional mother who believed it was best for her daughter to be married and stabilized. * Mr. Wickramasinghe- He is a typical Sri Lankan father who remains passive while the mother sorts the issue of marriage for their daughter. * Fredrick Dias- Also referred to as Wimal, Barrister from England, orphan, Christian, did not believe in love but wanted security. * Mrs.Dias- Traditional aunt, took good care of Wimal, make Wimal acquiesce her wishes. Main conflict- Anoma experiences an internal conflict. She is curious about many things like who the stranger who calls on her husband during their honeymoon is and why her husband does not want to make love to her. She finally discovers that her husband is a homosexual. Rising Action-Develops the conflict and creates suspense Develops the conflict- Anoma continues to feel ill used about the person who keeps calling her husband and WimalÃ¢â¬â¢s reluctance to make love to her. Creates suspense-Anoma is suspicious about the calls Wimal receives.Climax- the turning point of the story where the main character comes face to face with an issue Occurs at the very end of the story and therefore is also the resolution/denouncement. Anoma confines in her friend and finds out that her husband is a homosexual. Mini- climax- When Anoma questions Wimal whether they are going to have sex and he replies saying they have a lifetime ahead of them. Setting Time- Place- Anoma and Wimal choose Nuwara Eliya as their honeymoon destination. This is a very common and cold location. This acts as a symbol as well defining Wimals character, Wiimal is distant from Anoma even during their honeymoon.Even with shivering temperatures, Wimal refuses to cuddle Ano ma and keep her warm. Social Environment- It is traditional because Mrs. Wickramasinghe wanted her daughter married to a person of the same caste regardless of his qualities. It is restrictive because Wimal is distant from Anoma even during their honeymoon. The story is set a reserved setting because everything is rigid and formal. Weather- There is not of much significance about the weather except AnomaÃ¢â¬â¢s and WimalÃ¢â¬â¢s Honeymoon destination. The cold climate in Nuwara Eliya reflects the distance and the lack of intimateness between the newlyweds. Character-The Protagonist is the story is Anoma Wickramasinghe. She can be considered as reserved because she did not engage in an affair while she was at University. She is also shy upon meeting her intended husband but loses her shyness soon when they start talking to each other. She is simple and does not like much of a hassle. This is evident by the relief she feels when she leaves the wedding and sets off on the honeymoon with Wimal. She is also a patient person because she is willing to get married in an arranged fashion and waits for the love to grow. Anoma is also an obedient wife because she accompanies her hs
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Ã¢â¬ËDangerously alluringÃ¢â¬â¢, to what extent is this an accurate estimation of Richards Character?Ã Richard III. One of the most complex characters in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s various plays. Psychologically, he is an enigmatic individual, who possesses a number of contradictory characteristics, which qualify him as a fantastic villain. He is a man so determined to succeed, that he can almost be perceived as slightly insane. His three dimensional character means that there is a side of him that will appeal to the audience, and absorbs the viewer into his world of madness, irony, and mayhem. There is no other suitable way to characterise Richard, apart from Ã¢â¬ËDangerously alluringÃ¢â¬â¢, as I will prove in a psychosomatic analysis of Richard in the play Ã¢â¬ËKing Richard IIIÃ¢â¬â¢. One of RichardÃ¢â¬â¢s most dangerously alluring characteristics is his manipulative speech. He is undoubtedly the most articulate character in the whole of the play, making him dangerous to encounter. He proves, throughout the play, that, with the aid of his Ã¢â¬Ëhoney wordsÃ¢â¬â¢, he can free himself from any situations that may jeopardise, his plot and thus his path to the throne. One of the most improbable situations, which RichardÃ¢â¬â¢s verbal dexterity allows him to escape, is his confrontation with Anne (Act I Scene III), at the funeral of her late husband Edward Prince of Wales, who died at the hands of Richard following the Battle of Tewkesbury. Of course Anne feels pure hate towards Richard because of the pain he has inflicted upon her and her family. In the beginning of their encounter her revulsion towards Richard is evident in the tone of her speech;Ã Ã¢â¬ËFoul devil, for GodÃ¢â¬â¢s sake hence, and trouble us notÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢Ã It is quite clear that Anne holds, in her heart, a passionate hatred towards Richard, as he ruined her family. Other examples of her abhorrence of Richard are the names, to which she refers to him with,Ã Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ¦infection of a manÃ¢â¬â¢Ã Ã¢â¬ËFoul devilÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢Ã Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ¦thou lump of foul deformityÃ¢â¬â¢Ã The latter insult is very wounding towards Richard as it refers to his deformity, i.e. his withered arm, which he is very aware of, he makes many comments throughout the play about it,Ã (Act I scene I) Ã¢â¬ËCheating of feature by dissembling NatureÃ¢â¬â¢Ã Ã¢â¬ËBut I, that am not shaped for sporting tricksÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ¦descant upon my own deformity.Ã¢â¬â¢Ã And thinks himself inferior because of it,Ã Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ¦since I cannot prove a loverÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢Ã This reference to RichardÃ¢â¬â¢s deformity, by Anne reflects how angry she is. In some parts of the confrontation she even curses him,Ã Ã¢â¬ËEither heavÃ¢â¬â¢n with lightening strike the murderer deadÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢Ã Previously, before Richard enter the scene she makes many hurtful curses upon Richard and his prospective wife,Ã Ã¢â¬ËIf ever he have a child, abortive be it;Ã¢â¬â¢Ã Ã¢â¬ËMay fright the hopeful mother at the view Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢Ã With hindsight it is clear to see how ironic these curses are because Anne ultimately becomes RichardÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. Yet how was Anne transformed from hatred, to an ounce of affection, after the crimes Richard has committed against her and her family? Simply, when she finally gives Richard an opportunity to speak, Anne is lured by his dexterity in the art of decei t. He skilfully turns the blame towards, as he claims it was her beauty which drove him towards such heinous crimes, Ã¢â¬ËYour beauty was the cause of that effectÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢Ã His disingenuous tactics prove advantageous as slowly but surely she calm, falling a prey to his deception. Allowing Richard time to speak is a fatal error as she lets her guard down and becomes susceptible to his lies.Ã At one point he gauges that he has turned her mind from hate to slight affection, and offers her his sword to kill him for his crimes, and to rid him of the pain he feels because of the great Ã¢â¬ËaffectionÃ¢â¬â¢ he feels for Anne which is not mutual;Ã Ã¢â¬ËLo here I lend thee this sharp pointed swordÃ Which if thou please to hide in this true breastÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢Ã His verbal skill is and obviously has been influential enough to turn AnneÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings, and he has picked a key moment to prove his love, as at any point before she perhaps would have gladly buried the sword in his chest. He picks the right moment where she has been stunned and confused by his actions, and the fact that he has offered his sword for Anne to kill him, confirms his Ã¢â¬ËtrueÃ¢â¬â¢ feelings for her. He even previously utters some very callous words about Anne and his feelings towards her,Ã ANNE; Ã¢â¬ËSome dungeonÃ¢â¬â¢Ã RICHARD; Ã¢â¬ËYour bed chamberÃ¢â¬â¢Ã The fact that Richard has the courage to utter such a tasteless comment speaks highly of his audacity and confidence, and shows that he gauges that he has the intelligence to remedy this whole situation, no matter how difficult the predicament he finds himself in is. His air of confidence is dangerously alluring because it shows him to be a very strong character, and some women find confidence an attractive quality. Richard IIIÃ¢â¬â¢s character explores the attraction of an anti hero, just as Heathcliff did in the novel Wuthering Heights. In this scene of the play Richard uses his skill to win Anne over and accomplish another part of his plot to become King. RichardsÃ¢â¬â¢ intelligence allows him to see that by marrying Anne he is safe-guarding his position on the throne as he will have an alliance with the House of York through his own blood and Lancaster through AnneÃ¢â¬â¢s. He shows how he can exploit Anne to make his path to being King even stronger. This scene is perhaps the best example of how dangerously alluring Richard is as when you contrast the beginning and the end of the scene it is clear to see what Richard has accomplished.
Friday, September 27, 2019
HR Technology Case Scenario #2 - Assignment Example Moreover, organizations with the assistance of human resources technology are able to conduct operations with better sustainability as well as profitability in the long run. Thus, HRIS helps to develop employee skills, distinctive organizational cultures, management processes and systems among others (Kavanagh & Johnson, 2012; Kumar, 2012). Subsequently, the assignment describes the HRIS application. Additionally, the type of HRIS application to be implemented by CastleÃ¢â¬â¢s Family Restaurant is discussed. HRIS is an emerging concept in the sphere of Ã¢â¬ËHuman Resource ManagementÃ¢â¬â¢ for conducting HR related operations effectively. HRIS functions in four different areas such as operational, tactical, strategic and computerized (Kumar, 2012). The types of HRIS are illustrated and defined hereunder. Operational human resource information system helps an organization to make decisions by providing support of reviewing HR data and human resource services. Operational-level information system collects data, which is relating to human resources and include information about an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s positions, its workforce and governmental regulations among others (Kumar, 2012). Moreover, it has been also identified that few system, which is a part of operational systems are as follows: Employee Information Systems. The human resource information system analyses information of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s employees in order to make various HR decisions. EmployeesÃ¢â¬â¢ information comprises name of an employee, address, sex, education qualification, experience, salary among others (Kumar, 2012). Performance Appraisal Information Systems. The system denotes performances and productivity of employees. The data is used as a witness in order to evaluate employees according to their performance and commitment level. The system helps an organization to determine the appraisal system in the areas of promotion, transfer and termination (Kumar, 2012). The tactical information system usually
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Mesa Verde National Park - Research Paper Example I had an opportunity to study various artifacts of the ancestral inhabitants of the area. The baskets that were used by the Pueblo Indians provided an insight into their daily lives. The baskets indicate a culture that was engaged in agriculture as the baskets were used to store grains. The weaving skills were also utilized in making mats, clothes and blankets which were used domestically. I studied various pottery items such as jars, bowls, and pots used by Ancestral Pueblo Indians (Ã¢â¬Å"Preserving the Ã¢â¬Å"Works of ManÃ¢â¬ ). Pottery was an important economic activity for the inhabitants. Ceramic objects were used for cooking, holding food, and storing water. I took a walk in some farms and water control systems around Mesa Verde. I learned that the water control systems were used to divert water from streams and rivers to the farms. The systems were necessary for irrigation because of the low rainfall that was experienced in the area. In the farms, the Pueblo Indians cultiva ted such crops as beans and corn. The crops helped to supplement the diet of the inhabitants who were chiefly hunters and gatherers (Ortman, Glowacki and Varien 15-26). Over time, the Pueblo Indians domesticated various wild plants as they increased farming efforts and reduced hunting and gathering activities.Ã Ã I had an opportunity to observe various awls and spikes that were used by Pueblo Indians in their hunting activities. The awls were made out of animal bones and the spikes were made from wood. The awls indicate a culture that relied on hunting.
W 9 First Impressions-Discussion- workpalce - Essay Example At the end of the work day, I always double check my work and ensure that I did not leave anything pending for the next day. After all, allowing my work to pile up will affect my output and the positive impression that I strive to create in my workplace. 3. Every person you meet is a chance to make a connection. Networking is a very important part of business communication. Provide a 5-6 sentence expression of yourself that would give a great first impression. I have a sunny disposition that helps my co-workers ease into the start of the workday with a light aura. By simply smiling at them as they pass me in the hall, or by creating light small talk with the people in the next cubicle, the workload no longer seems that heavy or hectic to all of us. But that is not to say that I am not concentrated on my work from the minute I enter the office premises. I am actually concentrated on the workload I know I have to take off my desk by the end of the day. But I figure that letting the work get to me and starting the work day in a somber manner will not help get the task done faster. Rather, I look at the task set before me as a game and at the end of the day, after all the work is done, I have won the game and the prize is a quiet and relaxed night at
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Passive Smoking and Children - Dissertation Example Furthermore, the World Health Organization suggests almost half of the children in the world that is 700 million children have exposure to secondhand smoke due to 1.2 billion smoking adults (Blair et al, pp. 372-373, 2010). Alone, in United Kingdom, passive smoking is associated with the deaths of almost 10700 people every year. Furthermore, secondhand smoke has been associated with more than Ã¢â¬Å"2000 Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) deaths every year. More than 17000 children from five years to ten years of age in England and Wales are admitted to hospitals every year due to the various illness caused by the smoking of their parentsÃ¢â¬ (Strauss et al, pp. 267-268, 2010). Even more surprising are the statistics, which claim that almost half of the children between the ages of 4-11 years have exposure to secondhand smoke in their homes (Blair et al, pp. 372-373, 2010). This explains every year almost 40 children die because of passive smoking alone in United Kingdom (Gordon et al, pp. 103-105, 2004). One of the most important reasons behind study this topic is the fact that it is one of most important burning issues all around the world. As mentioned later in the paper as well that, until the late 1970s and early 1980s, there was this widespread belief that smoking only causes harm to the smoker (Yolton et al, pp. 461-465, 2008). In light of the freedom and liberty principles, if the smoker is sane enough to understand the consequences and yet wants to smoke, then the state or law enforcement agencies must not create any barriers in his or her way. However, towards the end of 1980s, experts and researchers had conclusive evidence to prove that smokers were not only causing indirect damage but also direct damage with secondhand smoke to their children, partners, friends, colleagues, and others living in the surroundings (Gordon et al, pp. 103-105, 2004; Strauss et al, pp. 267-268, 2010). Ever since then, the civil society, NGOs, watchdogs and others have been trying to achieve the goal of a smoke free world. This study is another attempt to explore the disastrous impacts of passive smoking, specifically on children belonging from the age group of 5-10 years. Furthermore, the study would also come up with some recommendations to protect these children and solve this problem. Research Aims and Objectives The stu dy revolves around the following research question. Ã¢â¬Å"What are effects of passive smoking on children of ages 5-10?Ã¢â¬ The research would attempt to achieve the following aims and objectives. To explore, investigate and critically analyze the social, economic, psychological, and physical impacts of passive smoking on children belonging from the age group of 5-10. To explore and analyze the long term and short term implications of these effects on children are their families To come up with a handful of recommendations to protect children from the destructive impacts of passive smoking Outline of the Thesis This heading would conclude the first chapter of
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Why do women only make up 6.5% of consultant surgeons in the UK - Essay Example The idea of such a work is to find out the reasons for this, so some solutions may be suggested in order to change the present scenario. Feminine has always been regarded to have less status and power and has always been subordinate.. Perhaps due to this reason, although these sex differences in earnings, occupations, and work in the United Kingdom have decreased over the past few decades, sharp differences still persist. Like in any other profession, the women now constitute a large force in terms of number and quality in the medical profession. However, there is a certain pattern of their choices of discipline, especially when the numbers of female professionals in different specialities are considered. The greatest convergence between women and men has occurred in labor force participation (Buyske, 2005). Yet despite this increased participation-and this may help to explain the slower progress with respect to wages and occupational segregation-women, on average, devote far more time than men to housework. One medical profession is surgery, or more specifically general surgery, where particularly male predominance has been observed. As of now, as statistic indicate only 6.5% of the consultant surgeons in the United Kingdom are women. ... In this work, the answers to these questions will be attempted to be found out through evidence from literature. Broadly speaking, this research covers two areas of inquiry. The first attempts to understand the sources of sex differences in labor markets in the context of surgery as a profession without resorting to explanations based on labor market discrimination. The dominant focus would be on how family economic decision making regarding the allocation of time and human capital investment may generate the observed differences between women and men in occupations, participation, and nonmarket work. The second area of concern could be existing discrimination and male predominance that might have led to a situation where female doctors are comparatively less interested in pursuing a career in, otherwise, exciting surgery. History of Women in Medicine Historically, women doctors are simultaneously a part of medicine and have been placed outside it, and their presence in large numbers is actually a destabilizing one. Surgery as a medical profession had always been seen as a symbol of masculinity, and that rests on an opposition between women and medicine. The century long history of medicine suggests that for long western culture was patriarchal in that it did marginalise women in the profession, reluctant to accept them on the same platform, and women as doctors have faced major hostility from the so called social dominance of masculinity. In fact, for quite some time, women were banned from joining surgery. Male Oriented Power and Privilege It had been previously conventional that medical power and privilege were male oriented; the operations and status
Monday, September 23, 2019
Myths and narratives - Essay Example It goes on to explain the intricacies of the friendship between the two people, where they are a rock to each other in good times, especially when they are both enjoying and experiencing success. However, there comes time when one of them, labeled as a law breaker, makes a mistake and breaks the law, which threatens the friendship as the law-abiding friend tries to stay away from helping his friend. When the time of trial comes for the law breaker, he is sentenced to death, and because of his love for his law-abiding friend he frames him so that they are sentenced together and die together. This forms the basis of The Water Ghost narrative, which holds on to the ones it loves so that it is not left lonely in the next world. The story bears a common moral of not abandoning friends in time of needs as their love for those who abandon them could force them to take drastic measures against them leading to regrettable consequences. A critical look into the story shows that this is a rathe r uncommon occurrence as the law-breaking friend should leave the law-abiding one as he did nothing wrong. Instead, he frames him for wrongs that he did leading altogether to a paradoxical teaching and moral of friendship. However, listeners of the myth should pay attention to the intricacies of friendship and how friendships can ruin lives, even though with well-intended actions. A good highlight of this one is the way that the law-breaker frames the law abiding friend into serving a similar sentence with him despite being innocent. On the other hand, the same story shows the demerits of not meeting the expectations of friends when they are in difficult situations in spite of their actions. As such, the law abiding friend distances himself from the law breaker so that he is not implicated, but then again he gets framed to serve a similar sentence for breaking their beautiful friendship. The effectiveness of the events depicted in this story are applicable in many scenarios, especia lly when communicating a moral or social convention towards handling friendships in tight situations. As a result, the lesson acts as a guide to ward off bad friends and create awareness of different types of friendships as well as how much some friends are capable of ensuring the safety of their friends. It, however, fails in one aspect, which is that of helping with decision making towards friendships as it only portrays the positive and negative meaning of friendship likely to lead to not having any friends. At the same time the story also justifies irrational behavior in friendships. Narratives serve a crucial part in the delivery of information, where they are easily remembered by the audience, thus, bringing the concept closer to the audience (Calavera, 2008). In addition, narratives and storytelling such as the one above allow to pass concepts in fun ways and the ones that can easily be related to by the audience because stories are great ways of passing time and delivering c ommunication to the intended parties. Communication of a lesson in the form of a story is apparently different based on the evidence from studies which shows a higher level of captivation and arousal of interest as compared to the boredom brought about by following the rigid rules. These rules form a framework for resistance, while storytelling breaks away from the monotonous instruction of what should be done and that which should not. So,
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Social structures in different cultures Essay The best way to study social classes and the diversity of such in a culture would be to begin by defining what social class is. In order to make a more accurate study, it was part of my method to interview someone with actual exposure to this type of social strata. I believe that on interviewing him, a real true-to-life and accurate first-hand observation may be given. As, he was an Armenian, I place this culture as my basis and standard. Now, to begin would be to define what social class is. His best definition would be a separation of people based on the amount of money a family holds. This would then dictate their classification and status in society. The amount of money they would have as a clan would serve as a basis for their status and how they are placed by the general public. Basically, the greater amount of wealth possessed by a family garnered from their business and labor, the higher their status in society and in the social strata. The only exception to this would be those involved in the mafia or similar shady dealing, whereas the source of money is questionably from jobs of ill-repute. These would then have the family classified as being part of corrupt politics, and may give the family a bad name despite the amount of wealth. In the culture under study, I saw the classification was basically between the poor and rich. There was a wide separation between these two, as middle class was small in quantity. It is a widespread phenomenon and a social stratum that is of general knowledge throughout the country. Families that are part of the rich may be those that own homes and have adequate sources of water and facility. They would be the ones who would wear more clothes, be seen to carry themselves with more Ã¢â¬Å"classÃ¢â¬ , and in fact those who would be the ones who hire people from the lower classes as their servants or employees. Those who are not, namely the poor, would be those in the more congested areas and towns, where luxuries such as heated water are not within access. They would be the general masses and rabble who live day to day just trying to make a living and get by. Because of the wide separation between rich and poor, there is few middle class. The distinction between the strata is evident. Either one is among the select who are born into comfort and of that more comfortable environment, or one is born into the rough real world where the grind of everyday life involves effort, blood, sweat and tears. The difficulty with the social class system is that it is an evident source of injustice and inequality amongst the people. For example, when you get in trouble with the police, rich people always get off after they pay the police through bribery/ On the other hand, poor people go to jail.Ã The fact that the rich have more wealth, most especially due to their separation from the poor by a wide margin, gives them the power to roam freely with more privilege and leniency to bend rules set by the government. They have the power to live above the law and move things to their advantage because of the money that they possess. It is also within their reach to be treated with a double standard, where the poor may be treated as usually guilty and less trusted, while the rich get off the hook.Ã The rich are the ones more likely to be driving cars however they will not be fined for overspeeding and the like. The poor however may not be committing the crime but will be under greater suspect, because of the fact that they are poor. There are also other disadvantages to this system. The poor stay poor and get poorer. The rich stay amongst themselves and stay rich. There is a vast separation and no room for getting better. The lack of education stays the same and there is no room for growth. As the wealth stays within the rich, it is very hard for the poor to elevate themselves to a higher standard, and by virtue of their birth into the poor, they stay poor. It is only the rich who have benefits and stay within them. This was again reiterated during my interview. The interviewee being of the richer strata stated that because he was from a wealthier community, he and all those with him knew that they would remain wealthy. Also, by living in a wealthy area, they had a clean and beautiful location, which was patrolled by police for top security, among a multitude of other benefits. The division spreads all over the place as another example of its effect is its extent to the workplace. The rich people have better jobs in business regardless of their level of education because itÃ¢â¬â¢s who they know not what they know and the poor work in factories or do not work at all. In terms of schooling, everyone is allowed equal opportunity to schooling. However, again because of the amount of resources, only the rich kids can continue to learn in college so poor kids are stuck with high school level educations. The rich are college educated and the poor are high school educated, that is, if they stay in school in the first place. Because however they are on the streets, the poor have better skills rather than knowledge.Ã Now recently, a change is staring to happen with more scholarships given out to poorer children. However, this can only do so much. As there is a widespread division between the rich and poor, the amount of uneducated folk is widespread and the access that the poor have to a chance of uplifting their standard is small. The educational system although provided for all still is one that is founded on financial capability, hence still catering mostly to keep the higher standard of the rich, and keeping inaccessible to the poor. In terms of politics, it is the same. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not what you know itÃ¢â¬â¢s who you know in Armenian politics. Even though a democratic voting system is in place, there still is too much corruption where the lower classes voice is not heard. The rich have money and money defines the power that they have, Due to the fact that they have money, they can steer the economy in a way that their opinions are more listened to and theirs are followed more. Plus, due to the fact that it is they who are more educated, they are able to use this to their advantage. The point here is not only that they have more control. It is also the fact that due to their control, they can put hindrance to the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s growth, as instead of allocating wealth and decision to the growth of the poor, the enlargement of the middle class, the lessening of the poor, their effort are maintained on keeping the rich with the rich. The economy is on a standstill and there is no progress. The only exception to all these divisions would be that of religion. As believed, all men are equal in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes, and here there are no biases. Under the eyes of their God, all men, rich or poor, are alike and are his children.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Advantages Of A Sole Proprietorship Business Essay According to Investor words .com, macro environment is the external elements that exist outside of a companys control that can significantly impact its performance and ability to compete in its marketplace. Examples of macro environment elements are the economy, government policy-making, technology, social conditions, and nature. For companies with a global foot-print, their exposure to macro environment elements is magnified. In other hand, according to Business Dictionary, macro environment is The major external and uncontrollable factors that influence an organizations decision making, and affect its performance and strategies. These factors include the economic factors; demographics; legal, political, and social conditions; technological changes; and forces. Specific examples of macro environment influences include competitors, changes in interest rates, changes in cultural tastes, disastrous weather, or government regulations. Body A business and its forces in its micro environment operate in larger macro environment of forces that shape opportunities and pose threats to the business. It refers the major external and uncontrollable factors that influence an organizations decision making, and affect its performance and strategies. These factors are Economic Factors The most important external economic influence on a business is the level of competitiveness in its market. This factor determines how much profit a company can make. Other factors, like consumer demand, tax rates and interest rates, affect businesses by determining how much people are willing to pay for their products and how much of the resultant revenue must be given to the government. Social Factors Social factors determine what a business can and cannot do. Businesses that engage in racist marketing campaigns or abuse their employees may be subjected to boycotts, divestment campaigns, and other devastating forms of social backlash. Thus, social mores determine the informal rules that businesses must play by. Legal Factors Laws determine the formal rules that businesses have to play by. Business laws deal with competition: for example, no monopolies; employment: minimum wage; and taxation; among other things. Businesses that form illegal monopolies, for example, may be subjected to lawsuits and broken up into smaller businesses. Because the penalties for corporate malfeasance are so severe, most businesses take the law very serious. Political Factors Political issues occasionally come to influence the activities of the business community. Corporations often spend many billions of dollars lobbying to influence political decision makers for this reason. Businesses may get involved in politics, for example, when their international operations come under fire from human rights groups, or when a high-profile politician recommends an increase in corporate taxes. Environmental Factors Environmental factors have profound effects on the way businesses operate. The availability of natural resources in a given area determines whether resource companies could profit from operating there. The presence of pollution determines whether it is safe for businesses to put employees in a certain area. Environmental laws regulate the extent to which businesses themselves are able to pollute. Conclusion Macro is large and environment is world. Marco environment is large number of force which operates. Macro environment is very important to the economy factors because the level strongly wanting to be more successful than other people.Sosial factors is what to make something develop in a particular way or be of a particular type in business. When we involve in macro environment, we should follow the law of .Dont try in legal factor as well. Politics issue is happening or done from time to time to make business more interesting. Last but no list, environmental factors is showing great knowledge or understanding the way make business operate. Introduction Sole Proprietorship A sole proprietorship is the simplest and most common structure chosen to start a business. It is an unincorporated business owned and run by one individual with no distinction between the business and you, the owner. You are entitled to all profits and are responsible for all your businesss debts, losses and liabilities. Partnership A partnership is a single business where two or more people share ownership. Each partner contributes to all aspects of the business, including money, property, labour or skill. In return, each partner shares in the profits and losses of the business. Because partnerships entail more than one person in the decision-making process, its important to discuss a wide variety of issues up front and develop a legal partnership agreement. This agreement should document how future business decisions will be made, including how the partners will divide profits, resolve disputes, change ownership (bring in new partners or buy out current partners) and how to dissolve the partnership. Although partnership agreements are not legally required, they are strongly recommended and it is considered extremely risky to operate without one. Body Sole Proprietorship Forming a Sole Proprietorship You do not have to take any formal action to form a sole proprietorship. As long as you are the only owner, this status automatically comes from your business activities. In fact, you may already own one without knowing it. If you are a freelance writer, for example, you are a sole proprietor. But like all businesses, you need to obtain the necessary licenses and permits. Regulations vary by industry, state and locality. Use the Licensing Permits tool to find a listing of federal, state and local permits, licenses and registrations youll need to run a business. If you choose to operate under a name different than your own, you will most likely have to file aÃ fictitious nameÃ (also known as an assumed name, trade name, or DBA name, short for doing business as). You must choose an original name; it cannot already be claimed by another business. Advantages of a Sole Proprietorship Easy and inexpensive to form: A sole proprietorship is the simplest and least expensive business structure to establish. Costs are minimal, with legal costs limited to obtaining the necessary license or permits. Complete control. Because you are the sole owner of the business, you have complete control over all decisions. You arent required to consult with anyone else when you need to make decisions or want to make changes.Ã Easy tax preparation. Your business is not taxed separately, so its easy to fulfil the tax reporting requirements for a sole proprietorship. The tax rates are also the lowest of the business structures. Partnership Types of PartnershipsÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There are three general types of partnership arrangements: General PartnershipsÃ assume that profits, liability and management duties are divided equally among partners. If you opt for an unequal distribution, the percentages assigned to each partner must be documented in the partnership agreement. Limited PartnershipsÃ (also known as a partnership with limited liability) are more complex than general partnerships. Limited partnerships allow partners to have limited liability as well as limited input with management decisions. These limits depend on the extent of each partners investment percentage. Limited partnerships are attractive to investors of short-term projects. Joint VenturesÃ act as general partnership, but for only a limited period of time or for a single project. Partners in a joint venture can be recognized as an ongoing partnership if they continue the venture, but they must file as such. Advantages of a Partnership Easy and Inexpensive.Ã Partnerships are generally an inexpensive and easily formed business structure. The majority of time spent starting a partnership often focuses on developing the partnership agreement. Shared Financial Commitment.Ã In a partnership, each partner is equally invested in the success of the business. Partnerships have the advantage of pooling resources to obtain capital. This could be beneficial in terms of securing credit, or by simply doubling your seed money. Complementary Skills.Ã A good partnership should reap the benefits of being able to utilize the strengths, resources and expertise of each partner. Partnership Incentives for Employees.Ã Partnerships have an employment advantage over other entities if they offer employees the opportunity to become a partner. Partnership incentives often attract highly motivated and qualified employees. Conclusion Choosing a sole proprietorship to start your business is a relatively simple process. In fact, you elect this business set up by default if you prefer not to go through a more formal set up with an LLC or corporation. A sole proprietorship has no formal paperwork requirements unless you have to file for state or local business registration or professional licensing. The fact that a sole proprietorship is the simplest way to go into business has great appeal for many entrepreneurs. If you want to start a small one-man repair shop, writing business or lawn care service, the thought of going through tedious paperwork filing and keeping up with documentation requirements may not seem appealing. By opting for a sole proprietor setup, you simply start your company, promote it, do the work, and collect the money.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Family Relations in The Joy Luck Club Ã Ã Ã Ã One passage, from the novel The Joy Luck Club, written by Amy Tan, reveals the complex relations and emotions that are involved in families. This passage concerns the story of four Chinese women and their daughters.Ã The author leads the reader through the experiences of the mothers as they left China and came to America.Ã The daughters have been raised in America, as Americans.Ã This is what the mothers had wanted although it also causes them great distress.Ã This is illustrated in the passage I have chosen. Ã Ã¢â¬Å"My daughter wanted to go to China for her second honeymoon, but nowÃ she is afraid. Ã Ã¢â¬Å"What if I blend in so well they think IÃ¢â¬â¢m one of them?Ã¢â¬ Ã Waverly askedÃ me.Ã Ã¢â¬Å"What if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t let me come back to the United States?Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã¢â¬Å"When you go to China,Ã¢â¬ I told her, Ã¢â¬Å"you donÃ¢â¬â¢t even need to open yourÃ mouth.Ã They already know you are an outsider.Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã¢â¬Å"What are you talking about?Ã¢â¬ she asked.Ã My daughter likes to speakÃ back.Ã She likes to question what I say. Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Aii-yaÃ¢â¬ , I said.Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Even if you put on their clothes, even if you take off yourÃ makeup and hide your fancy jewelry, they know.Ã They know just watching theÃ way you walk, the way you carry your face.Ã They know you do not belong.Ã¢â¬ Ã My daughter did not look pleased when I told her this, that she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t lookÃ Chinese.Ã She had a sour American look on her face.Ã Oh, maybe ten years ago, sheÃ would have clapped her hands - hurray! - as if this were good news.Ã But now sheÃ wants to be Chinese, it is so fashionable.Ã And I know it is too late.Ã All those yearsÃ I tried to teach her!Ã She followed my Chinese ways only until she learned how toÃ walk out the door by herself and go to school.Ã So now the only Chinese ... ...mes, for all members, but it is also a support network that can be beneficial for everyone.Ã I think that as the daughters got older they realized more and more how important family is, even though it can be a source of frustration at times. Works Cited and Consulted Feng, Pin-chia. "Amy Tan." Dictionary of Literary Biography. Volume 173: American Novelists since World War II. Fifth Series. Ã Gale Reseach, 1996: 281 -289. Heung, Marina. "Daughter-Text/Mother-Text: Matrilineage in Amy Tan's Joy Luck Club." Feminist Studies. Fall 1993: 597 - 613. Schell, Orville. "Your Mother is in Your Bones." The New York Times Book Review. 19 March 1989: 3,28. Seaman, Donna, Amy Tan. "The Booklist Interview: Amy Tan."' Booklist. I October 19%.: 256,257. Tan, Amy. The Joy Luck Club. Vintage Contemporaries. New York: A Division of Random House, Inc., 1991.Ã
Thursday, September 19, 2019
MICHELANGELO Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One of the most admired and successful artists of all time is Michelangelo. Although he was born in Caprese, a small village near Arezzo, Michelangelo grew up in Florence. His father was Ludovico Buonarroti, a Florentine official with connections to the ruling Medici family. At the age of thirteen, Michelangelo was placed as an apprentice in the workshop of Domencio Ghirlandaio. He then studied at the scuplture school in the Medici gardens. He was then invited into the Medici home where he met the two Medici boys who would later become Popes Leo X and Clement VII. Michelangelo produced two sculptures while in the House of Medici, the Battle of the Centaurs and the Madonna on the Stairs, both of which were completed between 1489 and 1492. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Michelangelo had several successes in his life of painting, architecture, and sculpting. His first large-scale sculpture was Bacchus. Around the same year of 1498, Michelangelo did the marble Pieta, which he finished before the age of twenty-five and is the only work he ever signed. This sculpture shows a youthful Mary with her dying son Jesus laying across her lap. MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s expression is one of resignation rather then grief. Another of his greatest works in the large marble sculpture David, which he produced between 1501 and 1504. The expression on DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s face is termed terribilita, a characteristic of many MichelangeloÃ¢â¬â¢s figures. He was later called back to Rome by Pope Julius II in 1505 for two duties. First, Michelangelo painted the frescoes on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. For nearly three years Michelangelo painted lying on his back on scaffolding. His second duty was to paint nine scenes from Genesis on the vault of the papel chapel, which include God Separating Light from Darkness, the Creation of Adam, the Creation of Eve, the Temptation and Fall of Adam and Eve, and the Flood. Before the assignment of the Sistine Chapel, Michelangelo had been ordered by Pope Julius II to make the popeÃ¢â¬â¢s tomb. He wanted it to be the most magnificent tomb of Christian times. Due to the lack of money, Pope Julius II ordered him to finish the Sistine Chapel. In 1536, Michelangelo started the Last Judgment for the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. The largest fresco of the Renaissance, the project was completed in 1541. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Throughout MichelangeloÃ¢â¬â¢s life of painting and sculpting, his crown acheivement as an architect was his work at St. PeterÃ¢â¬â¢s Bascilica where he became chief architect in 1546.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The Lord of the Flies as Social Commentary Ã The Lord of the Flies is an ultimately pessimistic novel.Ã In the midst of the cold war and communism scares, this disquieting aura acts as a backdrop to the island.Ã The Lord of the Flies addresses questions like how do dictators come to power, do democracies always work, and what is the natural state and fate of humanity and society, getting at the heart of human nature in a very male-dominated, conflict-driven way.Ã The war, the plane shot down, and the boys' concern that the "Reds" will find them before the British, shows Golding's intention of treating the boys' isolated existence as a microcosm of the adult military world. I am plunged into Golding's imagined island world from the first sentence.Ã He uses lush description to build a setting that will contrast and reflect the boys' primitive descent.Ã The word "scar" describes the natural feature of the land, conjuring images of redness and blood from the first paragraph. The beautiful, yet often odd, descriptions help serve as a contrast between humans and nature.Ã The use of words like "scar" and "blood" foreshadows the future interaction between the boys and nature - the pigs, the hunt, the storm.Ã At the same time, the beauty and the order of the natural surroundings contrast with the decline of society developed throughout the book.Ã Integral to this setting is the fair-haired boy climbing the rocks, Ralph.Ã When Ralph meets Piggy, we notice the obvious differences between the two - the attractive and the fat, the daydreamer and the thinker. There is a moment when Piggy looks up at Ralph and sees the shadows on his face reversed.Ã This reverse of shadows seems to signify the missed initial connection between Piggy an... ...but ultimately signals a Navy cruiser. The fire, once signifying rescue and later used for destruction, becomes both. The novel ends in the adult perspective.Ã The officer is uncomfortable thinking about the savagery of the boys, and looks off to his cruiser in the distance while Ralph weeps for "the end of innocence, and the darkness of man's heart."Ã Golding is making a point about the hypocrisy of the civilization.Ã In reality, the world is just a larger version of the island.Ã The officer's comment on "the Coral Island" is also ironically significant in elevating The Lord of the Flies from a book about a group of lost boys on an island to a beautifully symbolic work of social commentary.Ã The view presented is dark and pessimistic, making its readers look deep inside their own human nature and at the structure of society in a frighteningly different light.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Act 3 Scene 1 is the main turning point of the play. It is during this scene that the play becomes a tragedy. The scene begins with Benvolio asking that they all go inside because he fears a brawl. Benvolio states, Ã¢â¬Å"I pray thee, good Mercutio, letÃ¢â¬â¢s retire: The day is hot, the Capulets abroad, and, if we meet, we shall not scape a brawl. Ã¢â¬ Mercutio ignores him and is entertaining everyone by taunting and provoking Tybalt. Soon the happily married Romeo enters. Tybalt calls Romeo a villain Ã¢â¬Å"Romeo, the hate I bear thee can afford No better term than this, Thou art a villainÃ¢â¬ Tybalt calls Romeo a villain to coax him into duelling but also because he will have no regrets in slaying him. Tybalt becomes angry at Romeo Ã¢â¬Å"this shall not excuse the injuries that thou hast done me, therefore turn and draw. Ã¢â¬ Tybalt thinks that Romeo is mocking him but Romeo still refuses to fight. Romeo tries to be nice to Tybalt, Ã¢â¬Å"I do protest I never injured thee, but love thee better than thou canst devise. Romeo is so blinded by his love for Juliet that he does not want anyone to get hurt, especially a cousin he just gained through marriage to Juliet. Mercutio then decides to fight on RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s behalf since Romeo has dishonoured himself. Mercutio calls Romeo a coward Ã¢â¬Å"O calm, dishonourable vile submission:Ã¢â¬ Mercutio says this because Romeo decided to stand down like the common coward. Mercutio then tries to coax Tyba lt into duelling him Ã¢â¬Å"[he draws] Tybalt, you rat catcher, will you walk? Ã¢â¬ Romeo tries to stop the fight between Tybalt and Mercutio by getting in between them. Romeo says to Mercutio, Ã¢â¬Å"Gentle Mercutio, put thy rapier up. Ã¢â¬ Even Benvolio tries to stop them. Benvolio being the peacekeeper did not want to watch Mercutio duel a Capulet of which there were many that hot afternoon. He was worried that on such a hot day the heat would cause tempers to rise easily. Benvolio tries to get the fight between Tybalt and Mercutio off the streets Ã¢â¬Å"We talk here in the public haunt of men: Either withdraw unto some private place, and reason coldly of your grievances, Or else depart; here all eyes gaze on us. Ã¢â¬ The fight ends when Mercutio is stabbed by Tybalt. Filled with rage for MercutioÃ¢â¬â¢s death, Romeo fights and kills Tybalt. The citizens of Verona, including both families of Romeo and Juliet, rush to where Tybalt and Mercutio lay dead. The scene ends with the Prince banishing Romeo from Verona. Shakespeare builds the tension in this scene by showing us the aggressive sides of each of the characters. For example, Shakespeare makes Romeo try and befriend his enemy which enrages Tybalt. Tybalt then fights Mercutio in place of Romeo and eventually Mercutio is killed. Romeo enraged because of the death of his best friend, reacts by killing Tybalt. The audience now knows that this play can only end in tears for everyone. In my opinion I think that Act 3 Scene 1 is by far the best scene in Romeo and Juliet. It shows the reader many sides of the characters like Mercutio who is most of the time acting like a fool but heroically fights Tybalt for Romeo; Romeo who shows a loving nature towards Tybalt and Tybalt thinking Romeo is mocking him. The dramatic purpose of this scene is to act as the main turning point of the play. It is intense from the start and ends with the banishment of Romeo from Verona by the Prince and turns the love story into a tragedy. Casting: Role of Tybalt Ã¢â¬â Coty Simpson or Zak Efron TybaltÃ¢â¬â¢s character is the same from the start of the play right up to and during Act 3 Scene 1. In the play we always see him as a fierce and fiery person. Tybalt is very aggressive, arrogant and has a bad temper. He is always looking for a fight but mostly fights with words not physically until Act 3. Benvolio descr ibes Tybalt to Lady Montague as Ã¢â¬Å"the fiery Tybalt, with his sword preparedÃ¢â¬ . In Act 3 we see how dangerous Tybalt truly can be when he challenges both Romeo and Mercutio. Mercutio also infers that any word with Tybalt could easily end with a physical fight. He states: Ã¢â¬Å"And but one word with one of us? Couple it with something, make it a word and a blow. Ã¢â¬ TybaltÃ¢â¬â¢s character is also very insecure. Tybalt complains to his uncle and aunt that Romeo has crashed their party and finds this act offensive, insulting and hurts the family and his status. Tybalt states, Ã¢â¬Å"This shall not excuse the injuries that thou hast done to me. Ã¢â¬ Tybalt is also a bit of a coward as he runs away after killing Mercutio, possibly afraid of the consequences he will face when the Prince finds out. Even before he dies by RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s attack, Tybalt still holds on to his powerful personality because he revels on how he got Romeo angry enough to fight proving he is stronger than Romeo who only acts on emotion not reason. To play the part of Tybalt, both Zac Efron and Cody Simpson can be cast. Both these actors attract a young audience. In the play, Shakespeare does not give Tybalt age, but his actions show him to be about 19-25 years old so both actors are the right age to convincingly play this part. However, Zac Efron previous casting experience will allow him to easily adapt to play the role of Tybalt. As Anakin Skywalker (Darth Vader) in Ã¢â¬Å"Robot Chicken; Star Wars Episode IIÃ¢â¬ , Zac Efron played one of movie-history worst Ã¢â¬Å"bad guyÃ¢â¬ . Like Tybalt Darth Vader angers easily and is motivated by rational rage and not an irrational (passionate) rage. Also, VaderÃ¢â¬â¢s goal is to inspire hatred and fear to control everyone around him. One possible downside to Efron playing the part of Tybalt is the challenge of convincingly performing the scenes as written in Middle English. In conclusion I believe that Zac Efron will be a good actor in playing the role of Tybalt. Cody Simpson would be my second cast choice for Tybalt. Cody is Australian. His accent may be more convincing when performing in TybaltÃ¢â¬â¢s role in Middle English. Also, Cody can be serious and focused. One key issues against Cody playing the part of Tybalt is he does not have a history of doing long films. Most of CodyÃ¢â¬â¢s performances have been short films and music videos. Of the two actors, Zac Efron would be the best Tybalt because he has play the role of the bad-guy and has a history of acting. Casting: Role of Mercutio Ã¢â¬â Taylor Lotner or Justin Bieber MercutioÃ¢â¬â¢s character is humorous, joking and sarcastic teases throughout the play and up until his death in Act 3 Scene 1. He is incredibly smart, has a quick wit and clever mind. Mercutio is a driving force in the play. Along with being Romeo best friend he gives the audience important information that indicates the bad events that will happen. His death is the turning point in the play. Taylor Lautner and Justin Bieber are possible great actors to be cast in the role of Mercutio. Taylor Lautner is a person that has been in many films. He has played the role of a guy being chased by secret agents to acting as a wear-wolf. He can be a fun actor and become more of a serious person in the proper scenes just like Mercutio. Taylor Lautner is 21 years old and would be close to the age that Mercutio would be in the play. One disadvantage of having Taylor play the role of Mercutio is he may not be able to fully perform the role of Mercutio. On the other hand, Justin Bieber is known as being a goofy person. Like Mercutio, he has a great way of making everything he says be funny and makes others laugh. One major drawback to using Justin in this role is his lack of experience. Justin has only made one movie. Further, that movie was more of an auto-biography and not a dramatic play. Justin Bieber is also a bit too young to play this role. Ultimately, Taylor Lautner would make the best Mercutio. His personality and ability will allow him to mimic and perform the part of Mercutio that I have pictured in my movie. Casting: Role of Montague Ã¢â¬â Robert De Niro or John Travolta The two actors best suited to play the role of Montague are Robert De Niro and John Travolta. Robert De Niro physical features give him the Ã¢â¬Å"lookÃ¢â¬ of Montague. He portrays the Ã¢â¬Å"lookÃ¢â¬ of a smart and upright citizen like Montague is in Romeo and Juliet. Also, De Niro has played a similar character in his role as the father figure Pat Sr. n Ã¢â¬Å"Silver Linings PlaybookÃ¢â¬ who is a bookie obsessed with the Philadelphia Eagles. Also, De Niro in the movie becomes a mean and cruel father. He has played a bad characters before. On the other hand, John Travolta though he has played some bad characters like his role in Pulp Fiction, his is mostly cast as a sweet and innocent person as we saw in many of his movies. Also, he do es not come across as a father-figure as well as De Niro and would not look authentic in the part of a stern and cruel character such as Montague. The best person, then, to play Montague is Robert De Niro.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Your professor asks you on what axis diabetes would fall under. You answer: A. Axis II. B. Axis I. C. Axis III. ** D. Axis V. 2. Brian often interrupts his teacher while she is speaking and frequently forgets to complete his homework assignments. He also has difficulty taking turns in playground games with classmates. Brian most clearly exhibits symptoms of: A. obsessive-compulsive disorder. B. psychosis. C. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. ** D. anxiety disorder. 3.Gena believes that people with psychological disorders are suffering from diseases that have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and sometimes even cured. Gena believes in the _____________ model of psychological disorders. A. medical** B. humanistic C. psychoanalytic D. biopsychosocial 4. If you have an intense fear of speaking in public, eating out, or going to parties, you may be suffering from: A. generalized anxiety disorder. B. dysthymic disorder. C. obsessive-compulsive disorder. D. social phob ia. ** 5. Thirty-five-year-old Lucy needs to have her blood taken.She is so distraught by this that she must mentally prepare herself for it as well as take a short-acting sedative. Lucy seems to be suffering from a(n): A. dissociative disorder. B. phobia. ** C. major depressive disorder. D. low self-esteem. 6. Lenore is continually tense and plagued by muscle tension, sleeplessness, and an inability to concentrate. Lenore most likely suffers from a(n): A. generalized anxiety disorder. ** B. phobia. C. dysthymic disorder. D. obsessive-compulsive disorder. 7. Depression is: A. more commonly suffered by men than women. B. less common than dissociative disorders.C. more common than phobias. D. the number one reason people seek mental health services. ** 8. Amanda blames herself for her recent job loss. Her therapist suggests that her depression results from this self-blame, rather than blame of the slumping economy. Her therapist's suggestion best illustrates a: A. social-cognitive per spective. B. DSM-IV-TR diagnosis. C. linkage analysis. D. medical model. 9. In the United States, there are ___________ suicides annually. A. 50,000 B. 20,000 C. 30,000** D. 40,000 10. One of the hallmarks of schizophrenia is disorganized thinking.Theorists suggest that people with such disorganized thoughts have: A. increased working memory capacity. B. low levels of dopamine. C. a breakdown in selective attention. D. increased selective attention. 11. The relationship between the season in which people are born and their subsequent risk of schizophrenia best highlights the role of ____________ in this disorder. A. learned helplessness B. oxygen deprivation C. viral infections D. glutamate receptors 12. Victor's mother is frustrated because she cannot get Victor involved in any activities.Although he has been diagnosed with schizophrenia, she still expects him to do things around the house. But, most days he sits in a chair, with no expression on his face. His absence of appropriat e behavior is known as: A. delusional thinking. B. positive symptoms. C. negative symptoms. D. disordered thinking. 13. _____________ are characterized by inflexible and enduring maladaptive character traits that impair social functioning. A. Neurotic disorders B. Mood disorders C. Personality disorders D. Psychotic disorders 14. Stacy has to be the life of the party.She wears revealing clothing, even around her married friends' husbands. This behavior has upset a number of her friends, especially when one of their boyfriends asked her out. On any given weekend, Stacy can be seen at a club dancing on a table or in the laps of various men. Stacy would be considered to have a: A. borderline personality disorder. B. schizoid personality disorder. C. narcissistic personality disorder. D. histrionic personality disorder. 15. PET scans illustrate reduced activation in the ____________ lobes of a murderer's cortex. A. parietal B. occipital C. frontal**p. 629 D. temporal
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Ferris State University 1. According to Freudian theory, is Steve aware of why he interacts with women on only a sexual basis? Steve is superficially aware of why his interactions with women are exclusively sexual, but there is an underlying issue with his mother that prevents him from having a deeper connection with women. 2. What type of psychic energy motives Steve, according to Freud? Libido, that controls sexual drive, is what has been motivating Steve over a majority of his life. . Which of FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s personality types does Steve display? What evidence is there for it? What would have caused it? Steve displays the personality of someone that uses defense mechanisms such as displacement and reaction formation. Due to the neglect by his mother, Steve has taken then experience and is taking it out on women around him. 4. At what Freudian stage is Steve fixated? What evidence is there of it? Describe the stage and how it contributed to the fixation.What would have caused this f ixation? Steve is fixated at the phallic stage of development. The evidence is that he is constantly looking for that sexual pleasure. With the lack of attention he got from the opposite-sex parent (Mother), Steve became focused on getting the kind of pleasure he desired, resulting in him being stuck in this stage of development. 5. Others might express their behavior differently than Steve if t hey were fixated at he same stage. Give some examples of how they might behave. While SteveÃ¢â¬â¢s hyper-sexual behavior is due to his phallic stage fixation, another person fixated at the same stage may act differently. For example, a person may instead seek sexual attention from people of the same gender. In another instance, a person could become fixated with themselves and unable to engage in sexual relations with another person.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Personality can be defined as the characteristic ways of thinking, feeling and acting that make a person an individual (Fletcher & Garton, 2007). There are a number of different personality theories that aim to explain an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personality, such as the Learning theory studied by B. F Skinner and the Trait theory studied by Cost and McCrae. By examining these personality theories in relation to a particular case study, it is possible to understand how an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personality is influenced and how it develops. An example of a personality case study is that of Kate, a 20 year old university student. She is described as kind, caring and loyal and prefers watching movies and reading rather than going out to a party. Kate works hard studying psychology at university and volunteers to help children with autism. Kate has a strong relationship with her family and isnÃ¢â¬â¢t expected to contribute to household expenses. By examining the case study of Kate through the Learning and Trait personality theories, it is possible to have a greater understanding of KateÃ¢â¬â¢s personality characteristics. The Learning theory of personality is one theory that can be used to examine an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personality. One of the most influential theorists in this area was B. F Skinner who believed behaviour people think reflects personality is simply behaviour that has been learnt from past experiences with the world (Fletcher & Garton, 2007). The theorists of the learning theory basically believe that if a personÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour is positively rewarded, they are more likely to repeat the action. However, if their behaviour was punished, it is less likely to happen again. This theory has been criticised for being too simplistic by not taking into account a personÃ¢â¬â¢s genetics and factors other than a personÃ¢â¬â¢s environment (such as thought processes, beliefs and motivation) that can influence their personality. Another argument is that personality consist of more than just behaviour. However, the learning theory is still a very influential personality theory and SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢s findings are still widely used as the basis for behaviour modification techniques. In relation to the case study of Kate, Skinner would argue that KateÃ¢â¬â¢s personality and behaviour is a result of both reward and punishment as a child. For example, she works hard in her studies to achieve high results. It is possible that when she was younger, KateÃ¢â¬â¢s parents rewarded her for achieving well at school or punished her for receiving a bad result. Skinner would argue that Kate demonstrates a solid work ethic because she was rewarded for similar behaviour earlier in her life. Another theory of personality that is commonly used is the Trait theory, studied by Costa and McCrae. This theory suggests there a five main dimensions of personality. These are: extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness. An individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personality is a combination of high and low ratings in each of these dimensions. This theory claims that all these personality traits are stable and enduring. Some criticisms are that this theory isnÃ¢â¬â¢t specific enough as to how much of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personality is a result of genetics or environment. Also, this theory does consider unconscious thoughts and processes that may influence a personÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour. The Trait theory is however a widely accepted personality theory which has been the basis for many studies and research. Costa and McCraeÃ¢â¬â¢s trait theory can be applied to the case study of Kate. She is described as being kind, caring and loyal. Kate also prefers watching movies and reading rather than going out. In terms of the Trait theory, Kate would be described as being introverted, conscientious, hard-working and well organised. The Trait Theory and the Learning theory are two very different understandings of personality, both with their own contributions and limitations, but both are relevant and useful when trying to understand an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personality. Each theory is applicable to the case study of Kate in attempting to examine her personality type.
Friday, September 13, 2019
Palm Feedback Loops - Essay Example The managers have been able to identify three probable generative feedbacks that drive the scenario specific environment into a new situation, that is, the movement from the centralized to the decentralized power generation (Ramirez and Van der Heijden, 2008). Various growing companies have basically found new and useful ways that help them develop their institutions and attain their goals. With the help of the new initiated ways these companies have been able to develop successful client feedback programs that mainly go forward through the many challenges that were there right from the start. These companies did not build the elaborated and centralized client research system but instead the firms started their feedback loop just at the leading edge. Employees of these firms mostly got to know how the firms work was doing and how much they (the firms) were appreciated by receiving evaluation of their performance from the various people (basically the customers who got services from these firms and appreciated what the firms were doing) who were much able to rate the firms and render their appraisal and views on the firms. The keen employees would usually take note on what the customer/clients were suggesting or recommending on a one on one conversation. The employees follow up the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s suggestions and see how they could implement them into the firms and get the customers a more desired and appreciated services all over. When deciding on how to formulate the suggestions, the employees usually take note on what the customers/clients have stressed much on (what the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s value more) and how they can deliver the requests of the customers in a best way (Dullweber, Markey and Reichheld, 2009). The companies (the growing companies) compile all the suggestions into a data form; the complied suggestions are usually arranged correctly looking at the
Thursday, September 12, 2019
The position of Japanese women employees from post-bubble to now - Essay Example Laws that are against the discrimination of women and sexual harassment at work have been enacted to protect the rights of females in the workplace. According to Broadbent (2003), the number of females who worked in well paying jobs rapidly increased in the period between 1920 and 1980. The number of women at the workplace reached sixty percent for those women in the age bracket of between 25 and 64. In Japan, according to local traditions, men are expected to work in companies while women remain in the homes taking care of the family. The Position of Japanese Women Employees in the Post-Bubble era The bubble era in Japan lasted from 1986 to the February of 1991and it came with influx of exports and availability of capital as suggested by Tsutsui (2009). The post bubble era in Japan began in the 19991 due to the crashing of stock prices. Despite the ongoing significant changes in Japan, the traditional concept of Ã¢â¬Å"rightÃ¢â¬ position for women and men in the society is still experienced in Japan. As a result of the growing modernization in Japan and the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s change in traditional believes in the country, the number of working women has been rapidly increasing annually. As result the ratio of men to women in the workplace in the Japanese society has also increased. Although the almost half of employed population are women, they are still treated equally with men and thus there is a sense of discrimination against women. For instance, focusing on the end of the bubble era, female graduates had difficult times in securing jobs compared to the male graduates whom they had same qualifications. On the same case, even those who were lucky to secure employment, the offer could not be compared to that of the male graduates. The main issue in women employment in the Japanese society over the last decade is based on how they deal with a system that entrenched and institutionalized in the period of high growth. However the society also has to consider t hat the system is now invalid and needs an overhaul in the post-bubble era. In the post-bubble era, the female labor force decreased to almost 50.2% that is in 1994 from 50.7% in 1991 as suggested by Gunther (2009). Feminization in the employment sector was slightly decreasing. Despite the increasing women employment the era is characterized by women self employment and family employment. Women working on temporary basis in 1995 only received about sixty percent of the salaries received by men. The amount of salary for female workers was also dictated by their age. In the same year, the average number of working years for high compared to that of women. The underlying issues in Japan in the post-bubble era included non-regular system of labor as well as the predominant part-time workers. The major challenge was how to deal with these issues which mostly affected women. In this era, JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s emphasis is on the use of part-time female workers as the cost-cutting measure in the c orporate. Instead the country should use women employment as a way of improving the general employment sector or in a more constructive manner. Research has established it that companies were reluctant in appointing female workers to high positions of work. There was also the controversy that female workers were not engaged in promotional training and the male employees do not value womenÃ¢â¬â¢s labor. In the post-bubble era, legislation like the Childcare leave of 1992 and the Family care leave of 1995 were
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Del inc - Research Paper Example Conclusion 8 12. References 9 Graph 1 1 table 1 6 1.1 Introduction Dell Inc. is a United States based multinational firm that manufactures and develops computers and its associated products and services. It is the fastest growing computer companies in the world. Its growth strategy includes both acquisitions and increases its customers. Its most prominent mergers have been with Alienware and Perot Systems. Dell is known for its supply chain management and online sales where it focused on Ã¢â¬Å"configure to orderÃ¢â¬ strategy where every product was customized (Fuller, 2012). It initially worked but as the demand became global the strategy was just too hard to keep up. Customers became smarter and wanted to use the products before buying which weakened DellÃ¢â¬â¢s online selling strategy (Eden, 2012). Graph 1. DellÃ¢â¬â¢s market share in U.S. and Worldwide (in Q1 2009) compared to other top PC makers http://www.casestudyinc.com/dell-supply-chain-case-study According to Atikan (2012), from 1997-2004 was an era of growth for the firm where the firm got a number one position for customer services and reliance. In 2002 the firm expanded its product portfolio to include televisions and printers etc. it also acquired Converge Net Technologies. In 2004, with the change in management, DellÃ¢â¬â¢s ties with Microsoft and Intel deteriorated and in 2005 Dell lost 25% of its shares. With the market now stretching across the globe, Dell could not maintain its customer services nor manufacture customized products. Moreover, the prices per product production reduced cutting down on DellÃ¢â¬â¢s profits. Adding to it Dell spent less on its R&D, which retarded its future growth prospects. The firm undertook many acquisitions as an attempt to rise again with its latest acquisition in September 2012 of Quest Software. Today it has gained strength by transforming into an IT solution provider and is successful in the Virtual Era (Fuller, 2012). 2 Application of OM in Dell Ã¢â¬â¢s workplace Operational management is primarily how Dell manages its quality, supply chain, maintenance, global locations and human resources. 2.1 Quality Dell was always known for its quality products however, as the market expanded globally, the firm had increasing difficulty to produce customised products and thus quality also suffered leading to complaining customers and a slow customer care. Every market has a different requirement and to cater to that it became difficult for the firm. This was also adding to the cost where Dells products were marked higher than the market price (Chen and Press, 2012). 2.2 Supply chain at Dell The firm has stringent legal frames that it follows and ensures that its suppliers follow that too. Maintaining that has enabled Dell to reached the global markets as the quality is maintained and at the same time the suppliers realise the standards they need to maintain if they intend to work with Dell. 2.3 Maintenance management Dell trains and develops its employees continuously and has highly skilled employees because the products are customised and thus require specific skills to follow this strategy. As per Atikan (2012), Dell aims to converge its technology that will simplify operation and make performance better simultaneously reducing operational costs. Dell claims to have a holistic approach that helps its customers with managing their virtual and physical IT needs thereby achieving their objectives. 2.4 Global management DellÃ¢â¬â¢
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Empirical research - Coursework Example The brands of pizza hut, KFC, Mexican food restaurant of Taco Bell and Long John Silver outlets are among the few brands that have been acquired by all these restaurants owners. Over the past years, Yum has been involved in many mergers and acquisitions and this raised a concern of wanting to know more and therefore will express it in an Ã¢â¬ËexpoundingÃ¢â¬â¢ study in form of exploration to tackle the causes and effects of Mergers & Acquisition in franchising. It is clear that, in as much as many companies have a variety of reasons for joining with mergers and acquisitions not all mergers get to succeed. Research show that, those who get lucky to succeed, do not get rates greater than fifty percent, from the two different methods used to evaluate on the success of acquisition or a merger. Among the chosen methods, the commonest one used is quantitative where; the performance rate in the share of the companies merging is taken and compared with that of the results of associate companies that want to merges with it. The other method is qualitative, and is usually evident when particular representatives of the companies are interviewed to see whether the merger can be proved successful. Businesses that join the scheme of mergers and acquisitions normally target the economic benefits, which are taken to be a way to grow benefits in synergy and a decrease in costs and form a grounds or room for mergers and acquirers to make a number of decisions. This is one drive that keeps the urge for companies to get involved in acquisition or merger. It refers to an event the combined company makes a lot of profit than the total of the two separate companies. When a merger or acquisition has a positive acquisition value (NAV), it is supposed to be economically. The NAV is defined as Mclean (2003), If this is positive, then the merged
Reading response papers - Essay Example e only wish to ascertain whether and to what extent religious forces have taken part in qualitative formation and the quantitative expansion of that spirit over the world. Furthermore, what concrete aspects of our capitalistic culture can be traced to them, In view of the tremendous confusion of interdependent influences between the material basis, the forms of social and political organization, and the ideas current in the time of the Reformation, we can only proceed by investigating whether and at what points certain correlations between forms of religious belief and practical ethics can be worked out. At the same time we shall as far as possible clarify the manner and the general direction in which, by virtue of those relationships, the religious movements have influenced the development of material culture. Only when this has been determined with reasonable accuracy can the attempt be made to estimate to what extent the historical development of modern culture can be attributed t o those religious forces and to what extent to others. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism,Ã¢â¬ Max Weber examines the part played by Protestantism in the evolution of Capitalism. After reading his arguments, it is evident that there are definitely Ã¢â¬Å"certain correlations between forms of religious belief and practical ethics.Ã¢â¬ It is Protestantism, as opposed to Catholicism, which gives religious sanction to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s calling, or occupation in life, and asserts that worldly activity is worthy in the eyes of God. Weber makes this point particularly clear in his discussion of the Calvinist BaxterÃ¢â¬â¢s works in Chapter V. Baxter holds that the activity of daily work is the best way to glorify the Lord. Idleness is condemned, while physical and mental activity is associated with divine grace. BaxterÃ¢â¬â¢s stand on specialization in a particular occupation, or division of labor, as a means of improving the quality and quantity of products, is definitely a precursor of
Monday, September 9, 2019
Accounting - Research Paper Example Some researchers consider that some of the modern day accounting procedures such as receipts and ledgers were in practice during those periods but in a different way (King, 2006). Some scholars believe that writing originated from early inventory scripts at ancient warehouses more than twenty centuries ago. The idea that numerical calculating systems were in print language, does not surprise many archeologists and historians who continue to acknowledge that the version of human civilization entangles in the history of commerce (King, 2006). The details of the origin of monetary systems and commerce help in providing a historical description of the beginnings and advancement of accountancy, as commerce and accounting ran concurrently ever since their corresponding early development. It is for this reason that scholars often see accounting history as being inseparable from the history of business and finance (History of Accounting). This paper discusses the history of accounting from the early stages of recordings on clay tablets to present day generally accepted accounting principles. The paper highlights the major phases of accounting as well as the contribution of different governments and persons in the advancement of accounting systems. The double entry system of accounting originated in Assyrian, Chaldaean, and Sumerian civilizations at the home of the oldest commerce records. Financial strength of farmers coupled with increasing trading activities led to the expansion of businesses among communities residing in and around Mesopotamian valley. During this period, Babylonian became famous for the language of politics and business that spread to all the areas of Near East. Leaders held most domestic animals and land. They gave extensive importance to record-keeping practices. Accounting records were noted when sellers gave price quotations under authentication of an agreement (Chatfield, 1996). Accounting practices
Sunday, September 8, 2019
Home Environment and Environmental Audit - Research Paper Example Finally, I would like to thank my parents for the warm influence and love which has been a source of inspiration for me for the successful completion of the work. Home environment and energy management assumes great importance in modern society as it ensures clean and hygienic surroundings and risk free environment. The environment in which people live is prone to serious epidemic diseases that can cause deadly threats to human kind. The efficient management of home surroundings protects home and its inhabitants from pollutants which contribute to the outbreak of serious illnesses to the people and make damages to homes. Similarly, energy management at home is also essential as it ensures savings of energy and money. The need for energy management is seriously felt in the present day world because of high cost and shortage of energy. Management of energy saves the money and resources not only of individual doing it, but that of the whole society and country as well. Thus, from macroeconomic point of view, energy management is indispensable for a country to sustain and develop in a situation where resource shortage is a serious issue. The two main energies used at home today are gas and electricity. It is indisputable that these two sources of energy are highly essential in human life and are dangerous at the same time. This calls for an efficient management of energies and the emissions that come out of the usage of gas and electricity. The usage of electricity emits carbon dioxide and it is likely to have adverse impact on human lives. A recent report documents that "in the UK, carbon dioxide emissions fell by 5 per cent between 1990 and 2005 despite a 43 per cent increase in GDP" (The Challenges 2006, p. 2). Turing to the impact of consumption of gas energy at home, the environment is affected by Benzene, one of the pollutants of the present day world. It is found that in the UK, 90 of the environmental pollution occur as a result of benzene (Air Pollutants 2006, Table 2, p. 34). It is also estimated that "Carbon dioxide contributed 85 per cent of the potential global warming
Saturday, September 7, 2019
God has Ontological Existence - Term Paper Example The religious philosophers, over the centuries have tried to establish the existence of God and have come up with numerous arguments .Major arguments about His existence are Cosmological, Ontological, Teleological and the Moral Law Argument. The Cosmological Argument comes from the Greek word Ã¢â¬ËcosmosÃ¢â¬â¢, which means the world. The Cosmological argument states that the universe could not have existed by its own, there must have been some cause that would have made the universe and that cause is God. The Teleological argument is from the word Ã¢â¬ËteleoÃ¢â¬â¢ that means design or purpose. As the universe evidences great complexity of design, the great designer, the God must have designed it. The Moral law argument proposes that the moral Law and Order in this world is alive and exists because of God who has bestowed human beings with this understanding of morality. According to the Ontological Argument, the God is the greatest being, imaginable, one of the aspects of greatness and perfection is his existence or in other words as God can be conceived that means he exists. Twelfth century theologian and philosopher Anslem developed this argument about GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence. This argument proves about the existence of God through abstract reasoning. Descartes in his Meditation 3 proposes about the Ontological existence of God .His Meditation 3 questions about the existence of God and his analysis is devoid of any scientific proof and religious arguments.
Friday, September 6, 2019
Power and Responsibility Essay In an altruistic sense, the burden of responsibility lies in the person making a decision for the a group of people as a whole and the consequences of such decisions or actions is solely limited to the person who made it. Even though a decision has been made in general to serve the people, the consequences still has to be faced. This does not change with an individualistic point of view wherein a profession that requires high standards in order to perform well needs a greater sense of responsibility for choice. A news writer or reporter who reports unverifiable or fallacious facts can easily retract statements in order to suit journalism rules. But when a doctor makes a mistake, people die. There is no difference with regards to the degree of responsibility a person since all professions must possess a deeper sense of responsibility. In the context of utilitarianism however, the concept is aimed for the welfare of persons as a whole in achieving a desired end. Applied in an individualistic view, responsibility lies with choice and a deeper understanding or personal morals and overall ethics. Utilitarian views are also consistent with consequentialism wherein an action may be considered morally right if it contributes more on a favorable consequence rather than a bad one. In this sense, moral values are then based on a good purpose or outcome. Thus the responsibility of an individual relies on the outcome itself and it may only be considered as morally correct when it serves the purpose of the greater good. Although journalism and health are professions that has corresponding moral and ethical systems, utilitarian views present a morally favorable principle wherein actions are guided by the responsibility of doing a good job not only to avoid moral and ethical problems but also in achieving a contribution to the overall utility or good and a drive in achieving excellence. References (n. d. ). Ethics (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy). Retrieved July 31, 2008, from http://www. iep. utm. edu/e/ethics. htm#SH2b.
Thursday, September 5, 2019
Resource Based View in Business Management Introduction The resource-based view is defined as a business management tool utilized to know the strategic resources available to firm. The basic principle of the resource based value is that the basis for a competitive advantage of a company lies primarily in the application of the group of valuable resources at the firms disposal. In order to change a short-run competitive advantage into a maintained competitive advantage requires that these resources are heterogeneous in nature and not perfectly mobile. In other words, this will change into valuable resources that either perfectly imitable or substitutable without great effort. If these conditions are remained, the companys group of resources can help the firm sustaining above average returns. The recent dominant view of corporate strategy resource-based theory or resource-based view (RBV) of company is based on the theory of economic rent and the view of the company as a collection of capabilities. This view of strategy has a coherence and integrative role that puts it well ahead of other mechanisms of strategic decision making. The olden strategy models such as Michael Porters five forces model concentrates on the firms external competitive environment. Most of them do not try to look inside the firm. Instead, the resource-based perspective shows the need for a fit among the external market context in which a firm works and its internal capabilities. In contrast to the Input / Output Model (I/O model), the resource-based view is grounded in the perspective that a companys internal environment, in terms of its resources and capabilities, is more crucial to the determination of strategic action compared to the external environment. The resource based view suggest that a companys rare resources and capabilities give the basis for a strategy instead of concentrating on the accumulation of resources necessary to implement the strategy dictated by conditions and constraints in the external environment (I/O model). The business strategy chosen should enable the company to best use its core competencies relative to chances in the external environment. The resource-based view of the firm might be useful to the field of strategic management. The big benefit of this theory was it motivated a dialogue between scholars from a lot of perspectives, which they described as good conversation. From then onwards, the strengths and weaknesses of the resource based view have been vigorously argued in strategic management and other management disciplines. There are lesser discussions regarding the resource based view done in the field of information systems. The resource based view is used in the information system field on a few occasions, yet there is no effort up to date to comprehensive evaluates their weaknesses and strengths. The resource-based view also stands that companies possess resources, a subset which allows them to reach competitive advantage and later on giving them long term superior performance. Many studies of performance from company using the resource based view have found differences within the industries. This recommends that the effects of individual, firm-specific resources on performance can be crucial. Valuable and rare resources and whose benefits can be sorted by the owning (or controlling) company giving it with a temporary competitive advantage. That strength can be maintained over longer time periods to the extent that the company can protect against resource imitation, transfer, or substitution. In other words, empirical studies using the theory have strongly supported the resource-based view. One of the key challenges of resource based view related is to understand the meaning of resource. Many people are interested in the resource based view and utilized a few different concepts to speak about a companys resources. This includes assets, stocks, competencies and skills. Such proliferation of terms is a problem for research utilizing resource based view because it is usually not clear what the researchers mean by key terminology. To make things simple, it is better to clarify the terms in a relevant way. Together, assets and capabilities define the set of resources available to the firm. Assets mean anything intangible or tangible that the firm can utilize for producing and creating in its process to a market. Assets can be taken as a input or output of a process. It can also be tangible and intangible. In other words, capabilities change inputs into outputs of greater worth. Capabilities includes processes and skills. Since years ago, there are big collections of contributions in the areas of strategic management and economics which find to change the term of resource based view or utilize it as a framework to solve empirical questions. Meanwhile, the basic propositions of resource based view have increased explained. In summary, the initial contribution of the RBV of the company to date has been as a concept of competitive advantage. The start is with an assumption which the wanted outcome of managerial effort within the company is sustainable competitive advantage. Achieving such a level enables the company to earn economic rents instead. This also concentrates on how the company achieve and maintain advantages. The resource based view argues that the answer to such question stays in the possession of important resources which have certain characteristics like barriers to duplication and value. A SCA can be achieved if the company effectively uses the resources in its product markets. Resource b ased view focuses the strategic choice, charging the companys management with the crucial tasks of developing, identifying and utilizing important resources to maximize returns. The resource based view will be discussed later in the following paragraphs and also followed by a conclusion. Article 1 Corporate Social Responsibility: A Resource-Based View of the Firm Mehdi Taghian, Deakin University This section reviews the application of the corporate social responsibility (CSR) as an intangible dynamic resource, its application in the formulation of marketing strategies and its association with business performance, using the theoretical framework of resource-based view of the firm (RBV). CSR focuses on what is termed the triple bottom line people, planet, profit (Capaldi, 2005). Supporters of CSR believe that it is compatible with the traditional goals of a business and in fact can enhance a business. These supporters assert that CSR must become an integral part of the wealth creation process. Therefore, if CSR is managed properly, it should enhance business competitiveness and maximize wealth creation value to society. Also, when the economy is facing challenging times like now, there is greater not lesser need to practice CSR. The benefits of CSR will be discussed in detail in subsequent paragraphs. CSR initiatives can be in many forms, depending on the company. Some focus solely on environmental issues but there is a move towards community-based development projects (Tench et al, 2007). These projects perform a variety of functions for people in rural areas such as providing education for children and equipping adults with job skills. Other CSR initiatives occur in the form of providing healthcare and awareness of diseases such as AIDS and malaria. Based on these companies annual reports and other publications, such initiatives seem to be successful (Vernon and Mackenzie, 2008). Therefore, companies are encouraged to embrace CSR to fulfil their roles as good corporate citizens. Even though governments have not enacted legislature compelling businesses to embrace CSR, the accounting fraternity has taken the lead by instituting accounting standards and guidelines that compel MNCs to adopt some aspects of CSR. The guidelines are on environmental and sustainable reporting and demonstrate how acting green can be incorporated into a companys accounting system (ODwyer, 2003). Some of the more notable guidelines and standards promoting CSR are AccountAbilitys AA1000 standard, Social Accountability Internationals SA8000 standard, ISO14000 Environmental Management Standard and Global Reporting Initiatives Sustainable Reporting Guidelines. These standards and others have increased the awareness among accountants for the need for good CSR and sustainable reporting. Stakeholder Theory The stakeholder theory considers the impact of expectations of the different stakeholder groups to determine CSR. This is expressed by Drucker in his views on business ethics in that management is ultimately responsible to itself and society at large. These sentiments were re-echoed later by Freeman (1984, cited in Enquist et al, 2006) who said it was not just a matter of social responsibility or business ethics, but ultimately the very survival of the company hinges on it. Stakeholders are groups from whom the organization has voluntarily accepted benefits, and to whom the organization has therefore incurred obligations of fairness (Galbreath, 2009). A firms traditional stakeholders are its shareholders, employees, creditors, customers and the government. However, the scope has been expanded in recent years to include non-governmental organizations and the community as a whole. CSR is utilized as a management tool for managing the information needs of the various powerful stakeholder groups and managers use CSR to manage or influence the most powerful stakeholders in order to gain their support which is vital for survival (Freeman et al, 200, cited in Gyves and OHiggins, 2008). The key issue here is identifying the concerns of the various stakeholder groups which are often different, and how to satisfy them. Hence, the corporation is driven to act in a more ethical manner to avoid antagonizing powerful stakeholders. Scholars have cited five major strategic responses to institutional pressure for CSR, which range from the timid to the hostile. The first strategy is to acquiesce, which is to accept CSR values, norms and rules for the organization. The second approach is to compromise by partially conforming to CSR requirements while modifying it to suit organizational needs. The third strategy is to avoid or resist all CSR initiatives while the fourth method is a more active form of resistance to CSR initiatives through outright defiance. The final approach is by manipulation, which is by attempting to change global CSR standards. As can be expected, the last approach can only be employed by the largest and most powerful corporations. Furthermore, a CSR strategy can be considered as a core intangible dynamic resource within the resource-based view of the firm (RVB). It can provide a general framework for decisions regarding the design and adoption of other organisational resources that collectively characterise their marketing approach and direction. Article 2 The resource-based view of the firm: Ten years after 1991.(Technical) Ten years ago, Jay Barney edited a special forum in this journal on the Resource-Based View of the Firm (Barney, 1991). In his article in the special issue, Barney argued that sustained competitive advantage derives from the resources and capabilities a firm controls that are valuable, rare, imperfectly imitable, and not substitutable. These resources and capabilities can be viewed as bundles of tangible and intangible assets, including a firms management skills, its organizational processes and routines, and the information and knowledge it controls. In the intervening decade, the diffusion of the resource-based view (RBV) in strategic management and related disciplines has been both dramatic and controversial and has involved considerable theoretical development and empirical testing. As such, it seemed timely to organize a new special issue that attempts to assess the past contributions of the RBV as well as presenting forward-looking extensions. Barneys 1991 article was positioned relative to the structure-conduct-performance (SCP) paradigm in economics. Revisiting this article, Barney (2001a) discusses the implications of linking the RBV to the neoclassical microeconomics and evolutionary economics literatures. Situating the RBV in relation to neoclassical microeconomics would have helped address issues concerning whether or not equilibrium analysis can be applied in resource-based analyses, whether the RBV is tautological, and identification of attributes of resources and capabilities that lead them to be inelastic in supply. Positioning the RBV against evolutionary economics would have helped develop arguments concerning how routines and capabilities change over time. Barney points out that all three perspectives have been developed over the last decade and provide a body of related yet distinct resource-based theoretical tools that can be applied in different ways in different contexts. Mahoney (2001) revisits Conners (1991) paper to provide an alternative perspective on the similarities and distinctions between RBV and transaction cost economics (TCE), questioning Conners argument that the fundamental difference is that the former focuses on the deployment and combination of specific inputs while the latter focuses on the avoidance of opportunism. Mahoney argues that to continue to develop the RBV with the assumption of no opportunism ignores key issues. With opportunism, the presence of the firm facilitates superior knowledge transplantation relative to the market because of superior coding, better control of opportunistic behavior due to the authority relationship and superior information. RBV and TCE are viewed as complementary because the former is a theory of firm rents whereas the latter is a theory of the existence of the firm. The set of market frictions that explain sustainable firm-level rents would be sufficient market frictions to explain the existence of the firm. The problem of opportunism, however, has also been closely associated with recent literature on corporate restructuring, to which we return below. Revisiting their managerial rents model, Castanias and Helfat (2001) present an expanded classification of managerial resources and explain how it relates to (1) other classifications of managerial abilities such as those dealing with leadership qualities or functional area experience and (2) the fundamental resource-based characteristics of scarcity, immobility, and inimitability. The implications of this model for firm performance, appropriability of rents from managerial resources, and incentives for managers to generate rents are then analyzed. The authors argue that managerial resources, which cannot be imitated quickly or which may have imperfect substitutes, do not by definition generate rents, especially if effort and motivation are lacking or misdirected. They also suggest that the nature of managerial resources may need to change with the life-cycle of the firm and the industry for rents to be generated. Article 3 Out of the many theories of organizational behavior, one aligns itself well with the human capital view of people within an organization. This theory, called the Resource Based View (RBV), suggests that the method in which resources are applied within a firm can create a competitive advantage (Barney, 1991; Mata, Fuerst, Barney, 1995; Peteraf, 1993; Wernerfert, 1984). The resource based view of firms is based on two main assumptions: resource diversity and resource immobility (Barney, 1991; Mata et al., 1995). According to Mata et al. (1995), these assumptions are defined as: Resource diversity (also called resource heterogeneity) pertains to whether a firm owns a resource or capability that is also owned by numerous other competing firms, then that resource cannot provide a competitive advantage. As an example of resource diversity, consider the following: a firm is trying to decide whether to implement a new IT product. This new product might provide a competitive advantage to the firm if no other competitors have the same functionality. If competing firms have similar functionality, then this new IT product doesnt pass the resource diversity test and therefore doesnt provide a competitive advantage. Resource immobility refers to a resource that is difficult to obtain by competitors because the cost of developing, acquiring or using that resource is too high. As an example of resource immobility, consider the following: a firm is trying to decide whether they should buy an off-the-shelf inventory control system or have one built specifically for their needs. If they buy an off-the-shelf system, they will have no competitive advantage over others in the market because their competition can implement the same system. If they pay for a customized solution that provides specific functionality that only they implement, then they will have a competitive advantage, assuming the same functionality isnt available in other products. These two assumptions can be used to determine whether an organization is able to create a sustainable competitive advantage by providing a framework for determining whether a process or technology provides a real advantage over the marketplace. The resource based view of the firm suggests that an organizations human capital management practices can contribute significantly to sustaining competitive advantage by creating specific knowledge, skills and culture within the firm that are difficult to imitate (Afiouni, 2007; Mata et al., 1995). In other words, by creating resource diversity (increasing knowledge and skills) and/or resource immobility (a culture that people want to work in), sustainable competitive advantage can be created and maintained. In order to create human capital resource diversity and immobility, an organization must have adequate human capital management practices, organizational processes, knowledge management practices and systems, educational opportunity (both formal and informal) and social interaction (i.e., community building) practices in place Conclusion Based on the empirical writings stated above RBV provides us the understanding that certain unique existing resources will result in superior performance and ultimately build a competitive advantage. Sustainability of such advantage will be determined by the ability of competitors to imitate such resources. However, the existing resources of a firm may not be adequate to facilitate the future market requirement due to volatility of the contemporary markets. There is a vital need to modify and develop resources in order to encounter the future market competition. An organisation should exploit existing business opportunities using the present resources while generating and developing a new set of resources to sustain its competitiveness in the future market environments, hence an organisation should be engaged in resource management and resource development. Their writings explain that in order to sustain the competitive advantage, its crucial to develop resources that will strengthen their ability to continue the superior performance. Any industry or market reflects high uncertainty and in order to survive and stay ahead of competition new resources becomes highly necessary. Morgan agrees stating that, need to update resources is a major management task since all business environments reflect highly unpredictable market and environmental conditions. The existing winning edge needed to be developed since various market dynamics may make existing value creating resources obsolete.